How MSW and Industrial Waste to Energy Power Plant Work

How MSW and Industrial Waste to Energy Power Plant Work

As thepopulation grows day-by-day, municipal and industrial solid wastes are more andmore as well as the power demand is higher and higher. To solve all issues, people try to build a garbage power plant.

These MSW and industrial waste-to-energy (WtE) power plants generate energy in theform of electricity or heat from the waste treatment or waste processing into afuel source. WtE is a form of energy recovery and most processes generate heator electricity directly through combustion, or produce a combustible fuelcommodity, like methane, methanol, ethanol, or synthetic fuels.

How MSW and Industrial Waste to Energy Power Plant Work

At the waste-to-energy power plant, municipal solid waste (MSW), called garbage ortrash, is burnt to produce steam in a boiler that is used to generate electricity. MSW includes a mixture of energy-rich materials like plastics,paper, yard waste, and products made from wood.

Differenttypes of waste-to-energy systems or technologies are available today. The most common type is the mass-burn system in which unprocessed MSW is burned in alarge incinerator, including a boiler and generator for electricity production.

In the process of generating electricity with the mass-burn system, waste is dumpedfrom the garbage trucks into a large pit. Waste is grabbed with a giant claw ona crane and dumped in a combustion chamber. These waste is burned, then heat isreleased and turns water into steam in a boiler. The blades of a turbinegenerator are turned by the high-pressure steam to produce electricity. Airpollution control system removes the pollutants from the combustion of gas before released through a smoke stack. Then, ash is collected from the boiler and airpollution control system.

Other Methods of Energy Conversion

It converts the waste materials intoa mixture of combustible gases in the environment with limited amounts ofoxygen.

Pyrolysis: Although it’s similar togasification, the temperature is different. Pyrolysis uses relatively lowtemperatures of 600 to 1,499 degrees Fahrenheit while gasification uses hightemperatures of 900 to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

Fermentation: In the fermentation process,microorganisms and yeast produce liquid ethanol from the biomass and biowastematerials. Then, dilute ethanol is distilled in order to produce biofuel gradeethanol, ethyl alcohol.

What Are the Benefits of MSW and Industrial Waste to Energy Power Plant?

The main benefit is ecologically cost-effective way of energy recovery. Using WtEpower plants is proven to:

●     Offsetgreenhouse gas emissions from the fossil fuel electrical production.
●     Useless land per megawatt rather than other renewable energy sources.
●     Produceclean and reliable base-loaded energy and steam.
●     Destroychemical waste.
●     Createsustainable and steady renewable fuel source.
●     Havehigh efficiency and low emissions.
●     Catalyticallydestroy NOx, dioxins and furans using an SCR.
●     Reducelandfill waste, as it results leachate and methane from decomposing landfills.

Where Can WtE Be Used?
●      Areaswith an established waste management and collection system.
●      Regionswith high energy demand/price to allow for recovery cost from the waste.
●      Consistentsupply of solid waste, as treatment costs increase with shortages.



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