Electrical energy is one of the finest inventions in lives. Renewable energy is more popular today, and people even try to build a municipal waste power plant to generate electricity. There are two main types of electricity;
Static Electricity, generated by rubbing two or more objects causing friction to build up.
Current Electricity, generated by the flow of electrical charge through the conductor across an electrical field.
Different types of power plants are built to generate energy.
Diesel-Fired Power Plants use diesel as fuel to produce small-scale electric power. It needs only a small installation area, but offers higher thermal efficiency compared to coal-fired power plants. They are mainly used as a backup for uninterrupted power supply, but not widely used for its high maintenance costs and diesel prices.
Gas-Fired Power Plants generate electricity by burning natural gas. Even though natural gas is a fossil fuel, its combustion emits low amounts of harmful gases into the atmosphere as compared to those from coal or oil. In Thailand, natural gas fuels are used in approximately 60–65% of electrical power generation.
Coal-Fired Power Plants use steam coal to generate electricity. Since it emits significant amount of harmful gases into the atmosphere, many developed nations phase out coal-fired power plants to prioritize reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Nuclear Power Plants generate a high amount of electricity by using
a nuclear fission reaction and uranium as fuel. It requires low quantities of fuel but produces a vast amount of power and also low-carbon. No nuclear power plant in Thailand yet.
Hydroelectric Power Plants: Hydroelectricity is generated by harnessing the power of gravitational force from moving water. At a large power generating station, electrical generators are attached to the huge turbine devices, spinning at great speeds to get the result of water rushing through it. It emits fewer greenhouse gases, but dams require huge investment.
Solar Power Plants: Using Photovoltaic (PV) technology, solar electricity is generated by converting solar energy from sunlight into it. Although solar energy is one of the cleanest and the most abundant renewable energy sources, the initial investment costs are high, and the installation requires a lot of space.
Renewable Energy Power Plants use biomass, biofuels, and also waste to produce energy. Biomass was the leading contributor of renewable energy in Thailand. Recently, for waste to energy power plants projects has been promoted by the Government in order to cope with the increasing amount of municipal waste and industrial waste.
The efficiency of waste to energy power plant depends on the property of waste to be fed to the power plant. For example, to use RDF (from sorting line and RDF process for municipal waste ) as fuel for the plant can help increasing the waste to energy power plant’s efficiency.
Geothermal Power Plants are environmentally friendly and include three main types: dry steam power stations, flash steam power stations, and binary cycle power stations. All use steam turbines to produce electricity.
Wind Power Plant farms are often constructed on agricultural lands, onshore, and offshore. The cost of maintaining wind power plants is low, hence, they are generally considered to be relatively cost-effective.
Tidal Power Plants generate tidal energy by converting the force of tides into power. It’s more predictable than wind energy and solar power.
10 Types of Power Plants Used to Generate Energy in Thailand